| Super Dampers
ATI manufacture so many different dampers? Which one do
Is the Super Damper
a press fit?
How often should
I have my damper rebuilt or inspected?
I don't see a
damper for my application. Can ATI make a custom damper
I use the damper retaining bolt to hold additional pulleys
and accessory drives to the damper?
I use my externally balanced damper on my internally balanced
Where is the part number on my damper?
What you need to know about damper bolts
How do I
send in my converter for a freshen-up?
Will my stall
speed change after an overhaul?
to the converter if I change anything in my combination?
Where is the serial number on my torque converter?
the deal with big block converters?
I determine my stall speed - is it different than flash?
Should I do a stall
What affects my
What type of fluid should
I use in my transmission?
Should I install
a transmission temperature gauge and a transmission pressure
What are the benefits
of low gear sets for 3-speed automatics?
the proper transmission / flexplate clearance?
soak my friction materials before I install them?
is it to center my transmission and converter behind my
How hot is too hot
for automatic transmission fluid?
What is the proper
way to warm my Powerglide?
When is the best
time to check my transmission fluid?
How can I troubleshoot
Why should I check my shifter cables?
How can I prolong the life of my aluminum drum?
Should I monitor my line pressure?
Storing a transmission
What is the purpose of an input shaft?
How much fluid do I need to add to my converter and transmission after I install it?
How do I calculate converter slip in low or second gear?
Why do some racers
pack their carburetors with ice?
Should I adjust
my brake bias for foot-brake racing?
Should I heat
up my brakes during my burnout?
Can I improve
my ET by short shifting?
What is the best
way to heat up my tires?
Q: Why does ATI manufacture so many different dampers?
Which one do I need?
A: ATI now manufactures approximately 500 different damper
combinations. For an externally balanced engine, there
is only one damper available for each application. For
an internally balanced engine, however, we have a variety
of choices. Just like everything else in racing, if you
are looking for maximum performance, you need the right
part for the right application. ATI dampers are available
in many different weights and sizes. Just provide your
ATI sales specialist with some general information and
they will be able to tell you which damper would best
suit your needs.
Q: Is the Super Damper a press fit?
A: Make sure that your ATI Super Damper has the proper
press fit. If the damper is too loose on the snout of
your crankshaft all of your engine’s harmonics will
not transfer to the damper and allow it to do the proper
job. For best results, use a damper installation tool
when you install or remove your damper.
often should I have my damper rebuilt or inspected?
A: If you have had your damper for nearly 10 years, you
should send it in to have the rubber O-ring inspected
and changed. ATI will also check for any problems with
the hub and other damper components. We can have your
SFI damper re-certified if necessary. Please speak to
your ATI technician for further information. If you are
racing in any sort of pro class or have over 800 horsepower,
you should consider having your damper rebuilt at the
end of each season. Remember, the smaller the damper you
run on your car, the harder it has to work to protect
Q: I don't see a damper for my application. Can ATI make
a custom damper for me?
A: Yes! ATI’s engineers can custom manufacture an
ATI Super Damper to fit almost any application. If you'd
like us to make a damper for you, contact our sales department
and talk with one of our damper techs. In some cases we
will need you to supply us with a stock damper for measurement.
We have made dampers for all types of engines, from Ferrari
& BMW to John Deere and Massey Ferguson.
Q: Should I use the damper retaining bolt to
hold additional pulleys and accessory drives to the
A: No! Never use your damper retaining bolt to hold
any pulleys or accessory drive equipment. The damper
retaining bolt should be used only for bolting the damper
to the crankshaft. The damper must be banked on the
crank gear and must remain tightly secured in order
to function properly. When you use a long bolt or stud
in an attempt to hold accessory drive components and
your damper, the damper will usually come loose and
walk around on the front of the crank. This will quickly
result in damage to the keyway in the crank hub, the
key in the crankshaft, and possibly the crankshaft.
Accessory drive components should be registered on the
damper face to prevent run-out and they should be retained
using the pulley mounting bolts.
Q: Can I use my externally balanced damper on my internally
A: No! Many people think you can simply remove
the weight and the damper would be okay for an internally
balanced engine. This is an incorrect assumption, however.
Due to the design of the damper, when the weight is
removed the damper will not function properly and could
potentially damage your engine. Send your damper to
ATI and we can convert your damper from externally balanced
to internally balanced.
Q: Where is the part number on my damper?
A: The part number is not stamped anywhere on the damper
itself. All of the part numbers you see stamped on the
damper are for the individual parts that comprise the
damper as a whole.
Q: What you need to know about damper bolts
A: The flat head countersunk bolts used in ATI’s Super Dampers require a T40 Plus Torx Bit.
If you are trying to source one yourself, this bit is also referred to as an IP40 Torx Plus
Insert Bit. Do not use a standard T40 Torx bit as it will not work and ultimately strip the
head. Remember! You must install, torque and Loctite® all bolts supplied with your Super
Damper regardless of whether or not you are bolting a pulley to the face of the damper.
Q: How do I send in my converter for a freshen-up?
A: Send your converter to: 6747 Whitestone
Road, Baltimore, MD 21207. When sending converters to
us for a freshen-up or stall change, please make sure
that it is completely drained so transmission fluid
does not soak the box resulting in a torn box, or worse
– no box at all for the converter to be delivered
in. Also, be sure to provide us with a good daytime
telephone number where you can be reached. This will
help to ensure that your converter does not sit on the
shelf waiting to be repaired and keeping you from racing
here to download the Converter Overhaul Form
Q: Will my stall speed change after an overhaul?
A: No! Utilizing a detailed database of converter combinations
and specifications, ATI keeps detailed records of your
converter’s internal dimensions, build heights
and other necessary information. The converter is then
rebuilt to the exact specifications as before, unless
you request a dimension change.
Q: What happens to the converter if I change
anything in my combination?
A: It is best to check with an ATI representative before
making the change. Something as simple as tire size
can affect torque converter performance. Gear ratio,
stroke and cam timing are the three major changes that
will alter flash characteristics. If you purchase another
car, engine or transmission, your torque converter can
be sent back to ATI to update it to the new specifications.
If you switch from a Powerglide to a Turbo or Turbo
to Glide, the splines can be changed inside the converter.
You will need all the specifications on the new combination
before ATI works on your converter.
here to download the Converter Spec Sheet
Q: Where is the serial number on my torque converter?
A: ATI torque converters have serial numbers
stamped across the snout of the converter (the part
that goes up against the back of the crank). Note: In January 1, 2015 ATI started stamping the number on the side of one of the mounting pads so the customer can see the number when it's installed in the car.
numbers stamped on the converter are foreign numbers
and usually mean that another manufacturer has worked
on the converter.
Q: What is the deal with big block converters?
A: With the advent of affordable 4-1/4”, 4-3/8”
and 4-1/2” stroke big block Chevy cranks, and
the resulting increases in torque and horsepower, has
come the increasing need for more efficient converter
designs. If your current or future engine combination
is based on a long stroke crank, don’t forget
that the torque converter may need to be modified or
changed to harness the additional power.
Q: How do I determine my stall speed - is it different
A: In order to check your torque converter’s stall
speed, put your vehicle in high gear and drive the car
at 1 to 2 miles per hour. Push the gas pedal to the
floor and note your flash on the torque. This is the
same as your stall speed. DO NOT DO STALL TESTS
ON CARS EQUIPPED WITH TRANSBRAKES. When speaking
with your ATI sales rep or distributor, be as succinct
as possible regarding stall speed and your converter.
To converter builders, stall speed and flash mean the
same thing. If you ask for 4500 stall, this means if
you flash your converter from idle, it should go to
approximately 4500 rpm. For example, a 4500 torque converter
in your car will probably only footbrake to 3000 rpm
before moving your car depending on the quality of your
brakes. Furnishing as much information as possible to
your sales rep ensures that you get the correct product
you are looking for.
Q: Should I do a stall test?
A: No!! ATI strongly recommends that you do not conduct
stall tests. Stall tests break parts, and not just converter
and transmission parts. Remember, you are at Wide-Open
Throttle (full power) and maximum load. The pistons,
pins, rods, and crank will really take a beating.
Many racers ask why it is okay to leave the line at
Wide-Open throttle, but not okay to do stall tests.
The difference is this – when at the starting
line at wide-open throttle, you release the brake and
the RPMs accelerate from that point. In the converter,
the stator is locked via the clutch assembly (sprag)
and goes from maximum load in a controlled constant
reduction in force to zero load (free wheel) as the
car accelerates. The hydraulic forces in the converter
are directed in a smooth and efficient manner for maximum
torque multiplication and flow for adequate cooling.
When performing a stall test at wide-open throttle (or
even with a rev limiter such as the MSD Two-Step), you
lift off the throttle and the RPMs, now at 5,000 or
6,000, get jerked down to idle. The stator and clutch
assembly goes from maximum load and torque multiplication
to zero load in an instant. The clutch is unloaded rapidly
and the hydraulic forces are instantly disrupted into
unknown flow paths due to the rapid reduction in torque.
We have seen many converters damaged by this rapid unloading
when a ring and pinion, planetary gear set, or input
shaft fail. The rampant hydraulic pressure actually
breaks the pump blades (fins) completely off the converter
It is for this reason that converter manufacturers have
for years warned against “snagging the slicks”
coming out of the water as RPMs can go from 5,000 or
6,000 to an idle as the tires catch. Once again, damage
can be done to the sprag assembly. Also remember that
the converter builds up a tremendous amount of heat
in a short period of time. By not running an engine
after a stall test, all that heated fluid lays in the
converter without having a chance to go through the
cooler. Excessive heat eventually “fatigues”
the metals in the converter.
So, just say no to stall tests. They damage parts. Use
the transbrake ON THE STARTING LINE ONLY – not
in the pits, not in the driveway, not for your burnouts
– AT THE STARTING LINE ONLY! Your cost per run
will diminish significantly.
Q: What type of fluid should I use in my transmission?
A: ATI recommends Type F in all Powerglides
and Manual Operation TH350, TH400, TF904, TF727, C4
and C6 units. If you are a Street Rodder with under
450 HP then fresh Dexron Mercon 3 is a fine choice as
well. ATI only recommends Super
F if you want to run a Full Synthetic transmission
fluid. If you are running a turbocharged or high horsepower engine, consider using ATI’s new 30 weight Max Duty Super F ATF. It’s a 100% mPAO based synthetic and provides better lubrication than straight hydraulic oil. Great for Hyrdamatics, Powerglides, C-4s, C-6’s and Torqueflites.
Q: What affects my stall speed?
A: Stall speed is affected by engine size,
stroke and even camshaft duration. Small changes in
engine combination can change the stall speed. At ATI,
we custom design each converter to your needs. With
the exception of our 10, 11, and 12-inch street converters,
each race converter is hand built one at a time for
Q: Should I install a transmission temperature
gauge and a transmission pressure gauge?
A: Yes. The information your racecar
shares with you is highly dependent upon the gauges
you install. Two commonly overlooked, but very informative
gauges, are transmission temperature and transmission
Transmission temperature is important in determining
that sufficient heat has been built to send the car
to the starting line. Over time, a range of average
operating temperatures can be established for “before
run” and “after run” readings. Transmission
temperature can be an important factor in your search
for ultimate performance and/or consistency. Any excessive
high or low temperature condition should be noted, and
might help to indicate a present or future problem.
The addition of a transmission pressure gauge can not
only reinforce what the temperature gauge is telling
you, but also provides information about instant damage,
and normal operating wear occurring in the transmission.
For a transmission temperature gauge, look for one offering
a high range of about 225-250 degrees. Ideally, the
sending unit should be located in the pan to provide
the most stable source of temperature. If a dedicated
transmission pressure gauge is not available, an engine
oil pressure gauge offering about 200PSI will work well.
Most popular transmission used in drag racing, both
late and early, have pressure sources that are ideally
suited for this purpose. While originally provided for
temporary dealer diagnostics, it can also be plumbed
to provide a permanent information source. Your ATI
technician can supply you with further details.
Q: What are the benefits of low gear sets for 3-speed
A: One of the most effective improvements
that a performance street vehicle can utilize is a lower
first gear set for the transmission. When such a 2.75
gear set is installed in a T400, T350, C-4, C-6 TF-727
or TF-904, it allows a conservatively geared 3.50 ratio
car to launch with the potential of a 3.90 rear gear.
Likewise, when a 4.10 rear ratio is present, the 2.75
low gear allows the car to accelerate with much more
aggressive potential of a 4.56. Highway RPM in third
gear is unchanged from stock. These gear sets have shown
as much as a 3 tenths improvement in overall ET –
often half of which occurring in the first 60 feet.
Q: What is the proper transmission / flexplate
A: The clearance between the transmission
and the flexplate should be checked on every torque
converter when it's installed. Clearance should be a
minimum of .100" but no more than .175" throughout.
Q: Should I soak my friction materials
before I install them?
A: Never install dry friction materials!
Always soak clutches and bands for at least 30 minutes
prior to installation. Soaking allows the friction materials
to be fully impregnated with oil preventing glazing
while adding to the life of the friction material.
Q: How important is it to center my transmission
and converter behind my engine?
A: It is critical to maintain a straight centerline
from your engine crankshaft through to your converter
and transmission. If your transmission and converter
are NOT centered, internal parts may experience costly
premature wear. Factors that cause misalignment include
engines that have been line-bored with the crankshaft
sunk in the block, flexplates and converters that are
out of round or unbalanced or even a flexplate that
does not “flex”. Internal converter and
transmission components must be bored to center themselves
in line with the engine crankshaft.
Q: How hot is too hot for automatic transmission
A: In stock applications, a transmission operating at
150° to 175°, offering a service life of 100000
miles, has its range cut in half when the temperature
increases to 195° to 200° At 295° service
life falls to only 1500 miles! In specific terms, varnishes
form at 240°, seals and sealing rings begin to harden
at 260° and friction plate slippage is unavoidable
by 295° At 350°all seals and clutches totally
burn out and conventional fluid solidifies to form carbon.
Synthetic fluids offer higher heat resistance to thermal
breakdown, but no better protection against failure
of the internal components at the stated temperature
Q: What is the proper way to warm my Powerglide?
A: Warming up a “bodied car” can hurt the
tailshaft bushing in a Powerglide. This bushing is only
splash lubed and will quickly run dry with the back
end of the car up in the air. If you need to warm up
the car, take it for a drive through the pits –
your tailshaft bushing will thank you for it.
Q: When is the best time to check my transmission
A: Always check your transmission fluid level after
thoroughly warming up the vehicle. Levels will read
much higher when warmed than when cold. With your car on jack stands, run
it through each gear and reverse. Then put in neutral and
check at idle. Right in the middle of L and F is perfect.
Q: How can I troubleshoot my transmission?
A: There are five things that could keep your
transmission from moving in any direction
- Pressure regulator valve in the valve body is stuck
- Broken front pump gear
- Broken Input Shaft
- Sheered splines in the torque converter turbine
- Pin on the linkage that moves the manual valve in
the valve body is out of the slot on the valve, and
not moving the valve to direct pressure to the band
or clutches. To verify pressure, remove a cooler line
and start the motor and see if the pump is pumping
fluid. If it is, pull the pan and check that the manual
valve is moving with the shift linkage.
Q: Why should I check my shifter cables?
A: Check your shifter cable in each gear! Not all “shifter to bracket to transmission” installs will line up perfectly in EVERY gear. This will cause burnt clutch packs in the gear that is not fully seated!
Q: How can I prolond the life of my aluminum drum?
A: When using an aluminum drum in your Powerglide transmission, it is important to change the fluid and filter regularly as well as check your band adjustment. Aluminum is lighter in weight but it also wears very quickly. A regular fluid flush and filter replacement can extend your aluminum drum life significantly. Also, always use a red-lined band with an aluminum drum. Kevlar will tear the drum up in short order.
Q: Should I monitor my line pressure
A: The line pressure of a transmission is the “life blood” of the transmission and is just as important as oil pressure for a motor. You should monitor the line pressure on every tranny you use.
Q: Storing a transmission
A: Rust can be a real killer when storing transmissions and converters for long periods of time. Be sure to store your units in a dry, well ventilated place with all holes capped and plugged!
Q: What is the purpose of the input shaft?
- Transfer power from the converter to the input sun gear while in low gear.
- Transfer power from the converter to the high gear hub in high gear.
- Direct oil coming from the converter to the front ring on the shaft and out through the pump to the oil cooler.
- Direct oil from the cooler between the 2 rings and down through the center of the shaft to lube and cool the direct clutches, gear set, output shaft bushing and the entire transmission.
- Maintain proper oil pressure in the converter and cooler with its sized holes that are “downstream restrictions” to control the flow out of the converter.
- Center and support the Input Sun Gear from its pitch diameter to the ½ diameter that goes into the bushing on the output shaft
- Center and support the Output Sun Gear (flange gear) via the “wedding band”
Which companies in the industry are capable of making input shafts properly? Who has the hobs, shapers and cutters to cut splines? Do they have the machines and the expertise that is required to manufacture this critical part? Can they properly heat treat it, straighten and finish grind it? Or, do they just buy it from someone and resell it? One thing is for sure: at ATI, if we have a problem, we have a REASON, not an EXCUSE, because we make it in-house from start to finish. We find the problems, not you. The bottom line is simple: Manufacturing technique for this product is critical. Material is critical. Heat-treat is critical.
Q: How much fluid do I need to add to my converter and transmission after I install it?
A: Always look for a converter to be full (generally about a quart +/-) before installing on the trans. Likewise, always fill the transmission with approximately 4 quarts of fluid +/-. And don’t forget the engine, rear, etc. It’s easy to do after a new build or rebuild when everything is reinstalled and ready to go.
Q: How do I calculate converter slip in low or second gear?
A: Drive shaft rpm x gear set ratio = total rpm / engine rpm=percentage of slip. If you have a converter that is “too locked up” it stops pulling on the engine and the car suffers from spinning on the gear change. This is because the converter needs to pull on the engine thereby producing horsepower. When a converter is “too locked up”, the horsepower falls off so when you shift, the full load goes onto the converter and spikes the driveshaft causing the car to spin. This is VERY dangerous for small tire cars that have a front suspension limited to no travel. Without travel to help hook the tire, the car will lose control. You can help this by shifting out of low gear sooner, but the converter will ultimately have to be changed.
Q: Why do some racers pack their carburetors
A: Heads Up or Class racers can gain a slight elapsed
time advantage during the hot summer months by using
the age proven method of packing the intake and carburetor
in ice prior to an important run. Dual or high capacity
“cool cans” filled with dry ice will add
a similar, temporary gain. More recently, racers have
found that by keeping a very minimum amount of fuel
in the car, and adding cool or chilled fuel stored in
the trailer or tow vehicle immediately prior to the
run will add to the total elapsed time save. Replace
and re-circulate the engine cooling system with ambient
temperature water and you are ready for the next round,
a few hundredths of a second quicker. Some racers have
even drained the third member lube for and an extreme
situation final round only advantage, but be warned
– component damage or other consequences might
Q: Should I adjust my brake bias for foot-brake racing?
A: Yes. In order to get proper performance
and winning results, do not forget your car’s
braking system. OEM (Original equipment manufacturer)
vehicle braking systems typically put up to 80% of the
braking bias on the front wheels. This may need to be
modified to provide more pressure to the rear tires.
Not only does this provide for better holding power
at the starting line for maximum performance and reaction
time for “No-E” racers, but is also provides
safer “brake light racing” in all forms
of ET (elapsed time) racing. When rear tire width is
often three to five times that of the front tires, front
to rear braking bias must be adjusted to ensure safe,
predictable high-speed braking.
Q: Can I damage my car doing a burnout?
A: When doing a burnout, try to avoid dry hops, tire
hop and wheel shake – a major factor in broken
driveline components. Although it is not always possible,
avoiding this behavior will extend the life of many
parts in your vehicle.
Q: Should I heat up my brakes during my burnout?
A: When doing your burnout, slightly apply the break
pedal to build some heat in the rear brakes. This allows
the “foot-brake” racer maximum holding potential
at the starting line, and warms the brakes to boost
stopping power in all types of cars.
Q: What is the best way to heat up my tires?
A: First, spin tires slowly in water in order to get
them wet while avoiding soaking the wheel wells. Second,
pull to the front edge of the water using Low to High
for Powerglide, Low to 2nd to high for Turbo 400, Ford
C-4 and C-6, and 2nd to High only for Torqueflite and
Turbo 350. Thirdly, when the tires are hot enough, release
the line lock and power the car out of the water 5 to
10 feet and lift. Avoid hook up that will scuff tires.
Finally – Stage immediately! Dry burnouts reduce
traction and consistency. If you do not believe this,
pay attention to your first dry leave behind the line.
It will hook solid every time. Small amounts of water
left on the tires will dry completely from the tire
heat long before the green comes on.
Q: Can I improve my ET by short shifting?
A: Three speed automatic transmission cars can sometimes
realize an ET gain by short-shifting the first to second
gear change. This is because there is significant rotational
resistance involved in turning the reduction planetaries.
By shifting sooner, the time period that this parasitic
horsepower loss is imposed on the engine is minimized,
freeing horsepower to the rear wheels. A similar, but
less dramatic effect may also occur on the second to
third up shift. When optimal gearing is present, the
highest RPM level reached during the run will occur
in high gear at the finish line where the least internal
transmission drag is present.
Q: Are short tires quicker?
A: The arrival of late generation performance cars brought
attention to the idea that huge, massive rear slicks
were many times not only unnecessary but also undesirable.
Twelve, eleven and ten second (and quicker) ETs have
become almost common place on modified, later model
Mustangs, Camaros and Firebirds while using only 26”
– 28” tall tires that are 9” –
11” wide. The restriction of smaller wheel wells
combined with highly improved suspensions in these cars
has brought about the “small tire revolution”.
Remember, any car has a much stiffer effective gear
ratio with a 26” tall tire than with a 32”
or 33” tall tire. Of course, using too small of
a tire will only result in wheel spin, thus a slower
60 foot and ET clocking in relation to the MPH achieved.
Q: Are tall tires faster?
A: In Bracket Racing, it is usually true that the car
should have rear tires that are large or wide enough
to prevent any wheel spin at all for absolute round
to round consistency. However, it is possible to have
tires so huge that the ability of the car to “plant”
the tires effectively in every launch is hindered. Likewise,
too tall of a tire is often responsible for unnecessarily
slow 60 ft and ET clockings. While taller tires can
generally produce a higher MPH reading, dragging a too
wide, too heavy slick through the finish line lights
can easily nullify a potential MPH advantage.
Q: Will my body style affect my MPH?
A: Yes. In cases where the MPH results are “slow”
in relation to ET and 60 foot, often there are several
possible causes. A pick up or shoebox body obviously
pushes more air than an early Corvette. However, other
bodies, such as full fendered street roadsters, are
also notorious wind catchers (3 to 5 MPH slower). Look
for a wing on a dragster to produce a similar predictable
result. Even slight changes, such as adding air to under
inflated front tires have been proven to produce a 1
to 3 MPH increase in extreme cases.
Q: What type of things can I do to gain additional
A: Experimenting with cam degree location, total distributor
advance, RPM at which the total advance occurs, carb
jetting, plug heat range, etc. may result in a two tenths
or more difference in otherwise “componently identical”
engines. In addition, a superior piston-ring-cylinder
wall sealing combination may provide “hidden power”
that provides a clear performance advantage over other
Q: What type of things can keep my car from
A: A misadjusted cable shifter, a throttle which doesn't
fully open, a bad ignition wire, a foam hood seal pulled
into a carb, a crimped or clogged fuel line. We all
have personal lists of glitches that have hurt or stopped
vehicle performance over the years. Be sure to check
first the same sorts of things that you would in a street
vehicle when vehicle operation is impaired. The “trickest”
engine, transmission, chassis, etc. combo can be slowed
or stopped in its tracks by a broken wire connection
Q: How can I become more consistent?
A: Racers, by nature, are always looking to go quicker
and faster – usually a good thing. However, if
bracket racing is your game, a week in – week
out thrash to uncover the next two hundredths of a second
may be clouding other issues involving driver/vehicle
reaction and predictable, repeated performance. A successful
and well-known bracket racer once said, “fix your
car and leave it alone.” The major part of “fix”
he refers to is the installation of absolutely reliable
products such as ATI converters, transmissions and components.
Eliminate the ‘gypsy’ components and let
the driver concentrate on his part of consistent performance.
Q: How can I make the most of a Test & Tune
A: You can learn a lot about optimizing your race car’s
performance and consistency at a test and tune session.
Choose a track that you are familiar with that offers
decent track conditions. If you are a dedicated bracket
racer, resist the temptation to “thrash”
your racer in an attempt to find .04 of a second. Instead,
use this opportunity to carefully monitor and record
engine and vehicle conditions prior to staging and immediately
after each run. By eliminating the pressures of actual
competition and minimizing between round maintenance/tune
up changes, you can focus on the time intervals and
procedures required to produce absolute consistency.
By integrating cooling, starting, burnout and staging
activities into a series of events, you can find the
desired gauge readings for each. Plus, it allows the
driver to prepare for the next round with confidence
under actual race conditions at readings that will most
likely produce equal results.